Space – Space is a lived experience of place/Abstract, specific, location defined technically. The formally and agreed topography.

Place – is the lived and embodied experience of space.

A Global Sense of Place

The article explores the geographical and social relations with space, Massey states that ‘time space compression’ (2004:63) based on the understanding that through the development and constant availability of social relations is causing ‘spatial disruption (2004:64) in the way communications and geography coincide with each other suggesting that people’s reaction to space is changing and the connection with that location testing the balance between geography and mass communication.

Massey addresses this on the basis of personal connection with a place for instance your favourite route, haunt or place connected either by ‘physically, memory or imagination’ (2004:68) this is a more realistic definition of space that it fitting for with how space/place is embodied in society. Massey continues to apply this theory to her a place she is fond of Kilburn (NW London) and place that bears a connection with her personal life. Alternately Massey considers the option that space is far more dependent on the economy and that alone shapes ideologies around space for instance capitalism Massey clearly acknowledges ‘money makes the world go around and us go round’ (2004:64) this is an effect of globalisation which in part affects cultural factors too adding the uniqueness of place.

The final concept Massey discusses is ‘locality’ which through research I’ve found can be understood in many ways, Massey states that locality ‘appears to be broken up’ indicating that through the repetition of globalisation the uniqueness of place she refers too doesn’t always have a full impact, as place and the established connection with society is already excepted as mediated through communication methods.


Massey,Doreen A Global Sense of Place, Univerisy of Minniesota, 1994,

 Creswell, Tim, Place: A short introduction, Blackwell publishing, 2004

The Production of Space by Henri Lefebvre

Lefebvre claims that social space is a product of other products in society ‘it subsumes things produced and encompasses their interrelationships’ (73:1905) this suggests that society does create a ‘product’ of social place through economical and technical or  political product directly referring to the way society decided and controls in terms in political leaders which thus creates the products of society.

He also targets the issue of space physically and problems within urban space, Berlin over the years has adapted the architecture and the buildings that create its urban space; most famously the unification of Berlin depending on the politics of the era the urban space is vastly different. The other problem Lefebvre found was ‘logic of visualisation’ suggests that the appearance of building suggested the semiotics that are linked for instance a sky scraper signifiers spatial power, Lefebvre expands on this issues defining ‘logic’ as being embodied and caught in time and space (98:1905) The urban spaces created enhance the product of society as they create significant places that draw crowding producing a function and some structure to society.

Lefebvre bases some of his ideologies and complex statements on traditional Marxist ideas behind labour and the social division of labour between the bourgeois and proletariat and the instruments of knowledge and the structured knowledge and expected behaviour that is set in a divided society.    (69:1905) Space can be physical divided as we see with Berlin, it then sub divided into activities that take place work, leisure day/night places etc this smaller communities are still rules by institutions as preferred by Marxist.

The ‘product of space’ that Lefebvre refers to suggests that once a ‘product’ is created it can be explored by outsiders and be transformed in time ‘space is being produced whose nature is nothing more than raw materials suffering gradual destruction by techniques of production’ meaning that with change in society, particularly political change which Berlin has suffered historically .The purpose and point of space adapts to suit new institutions this can be seen the regeneration of Berlin and the way architecture has developed the affects the existing building has on Berlin now and in the future.

Lefebvre Henri, The production of Space ,Blackwells ,1905



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